Modification of plant hormone levels and signaling as a tool in plant biotechnology.

Plant hormones are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in extremely low concentrations. There are five general classes of hormones: auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, ethylene Plant hormones are signal molecules, present in trace quantities, that act as major regulators of plant growth and development. They are involved in a wide range of processes such as elongation, flowering, root formation and vascular differentiation. For many years, agriculturists have applied hormon...
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Yale University research suggest loss of arctic sea ice impacting atlantic ocean water circulation system

Arctic sea ice is not merely a passive responder to the climate changes occurring around the world, according to new research. Scientists at Yale University and the University of Southampton say the ongoing Arctic ice loss can play an active role in altering one of the planet’s largest water circulation systems: the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). AMOC has a lower limb of dense, cold water that flows south from the north Atlantic, and an upper limb of warm, salty wa...
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University of Texas researcher have identified how pythons regenerate their organs and other secrets of the snake genome.

Evolution takes eons, but it leaves marks on the genomes of organisms that can be detected with DNA sequencing and analysis. As methods for studying and comparing genetic data improve, scientists are beginning to decode these marks to reconstruct the evolutionary history of species, as well as how variants of genes give rise to unique traits. A research team at the University of Texas at Arlington led by assistant professor of biology Todd Castoe has been exploring the genomes of snakes an...
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Eco-labels and Green Stickers are labeling systems for food and consumer products. Ecolabels are voluntary, but green stickers are mandated by law.

Ecolabelling is a voluntary method of environmental performance certification and labelling that is practised around the world. An ecolabel identifies products or services proven environmentally preferable overall, within a specific product or service category. Eco-labels and Green Stickers are labeling systems for food and consumer products. Ecolabels are voluntary, but green stickers are mandated by law; for example, in North America major appliances and automobiles use Energy Star. They ar...
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Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center has developed a novel way to increase lipid production in bacteria

If you want to create sustainable biofuels from less and for less, you’ve got a range of options. And one of those options is to go microbial, enlisting the help of tiny but powerful bacteria in creating a range of renewable biofuels and chemicals. In a recent study published in mBio, Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) assistant scientist Kim Lemmer and a team of collaborators focus on the microbes, reporting on a novel way to increase lipid production in bacteria. The finding ...
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Michigan State University research suggest, more genes are turned on when plants compete

Some people travel to northern California for wine. However, Maren Friesen, Michigan State University plant biologist, treks to the Golden State for clover. The lessons of plant diversity and competition learned from a clover patch, which are featured in a special issue of the Journal of Ecology, can potentially unlock secrets on plant interactions around the globe. “There’s something quite special in how clover assemble such diverse communities. They compete, yet they have many traits in ...
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Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is working to build Cool pavement to help keep cities cool

  Cool pavements can help keep cities cool, right? Yes, but according to new research from the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab), many reflective pavements have some unexpected drawbacks relative to conventional pavements when considering the entire life cycle of the materials. Scientists in Berkeley Lab’s Heat Island Group, in collaboration with the UC Pavement Research Center (UCPRC), the University of Southern California (USC), and thinkste...
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Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has solved the mistry as to why some rocks float on water for years

It’s true—some rocks can float on water for years at a time. And now scientists know how they do it, and what causes them to eventually sink. X-ray studies at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have helped scientists to solve this mystery by scanning inside samples of lightweight, glassy, and porous volcanic rocks known as pumice stones. The X-ray experiments were performed at Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source (ALS), an X-ray sourc...
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Dwarf Grass That Does Not Require Mowing

Grass That Does Not Require Mowing Plant a no-mow lawn and free up more time for yourself. With feeding, watering and mowing, taking care of your lawn can be a time-intensive commitment. If you are tired of that, or simply want to create a more natural-looking lawn, grass varieties that do not require mowing offer a practical solution. No-mow grasses work because they either grow very slowly during the mowing season or they reach a maximum height that doesn't require mowi...
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Lygos is a Berkeley Lab Technologies startup that engineers microbes to convert sugars into high-value, industrial chemicals, targeting compounds where biological production is cost-advantaged over petrochemical production.

Lygos is providing biotechnology solutions for today’s renewable chemical challenges. Lygos engineers microbes to convert sugars into high-value, industrial chemicals, targeting compounds where biological production is cost-advantaged over petrochemical production. Lygos' technology goes beyond engineering microbes and includes fermentation and purification development. Our goal is to manufacture and sell chemicals. This work has been supported, in part, by over $6.5MM in grants from the U.S....
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University of Tokyo has developed new strain of rice that flowers within a certain period of time after being sprayed with commercial chemicals commonly used to protect rice from fungal, regardless of weather, temperature, and other conditions that currently affect cultivation.

A new strain of rice that flowers within a certain period of time after being sprayed with commercial chemicals commonly used to protect rice from fungal diseases is now available, say Japanese scientists. This new strain could one day allow rice farmers to dictate the timing of their harvest regardless of weather, temperature, and other conditions that currently affect cultivation. Temperature, day length, and other environmental cues determine when plants flower, making it difficult for far...
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Citizen science is the involvement of the public in scientific research – whether community-driven research or global investigations. The Citizen Science Association unites expertise from educators, scientists, data managers, and others to power citizen science.

Citizen science is the involvement of the public in scientific research – whether community-driven research or global investigations. The Citizen Science Association unites expertise from educators, scientists, data managers, and others to power citizen science What is Citizen Science? The Oxford English Dictionary recently defined citizen science as: “scientific work undertaken by members of the general public, often in collaboration with or under the direction of professional scientists and ...
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Public Lab is a community and non-profit organization that is democratizing science to address environmental issues that affect people

Public Lab is a community where you can learn how to investigate environmental concerns. Using inexpensive DIY techniques, we seek to change how people see the world in environmental, social, and political terms. Communities lack access to the tools and techniques needed to participate in decisions being made about their communities, especially when facing environmental hazards. Public Lab is an open network of community organizers, educators, technologists and researchers working to creat...
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University of British Columbia has developed system that uses bacteria to turn non-potable water into drinking water

A University of British Columbia-developed system that uses bacteria to turn non-potable water into drinking water will be tested next week in West Vancouver prior to being installed in remote communities in Canada and beyond. The system consists of tanks of fibre membranes that catch and hold contaminants—dirt, organic particles, bacteria and viruses—while letting water filter through. A community of beneficial bacteria, or biofilm, functions as the second line of defence, working in concert...
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Purdue University study shows that the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes can live inside the tissue of romaine lettuce, suggesting that conventional post-harvest sanitization practices might not be sufficient to kill the potentially lethal pathogen.

A Purdue University study shows that the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes can live inside the tissue of romaine lettuce, suggesting that conventional post-harvest sanitization practices might not be sufficient to kill the potentially lethal pathogen. Research led by Amanda Deering, clinical assistant professor in the Department of Food Science, showed that the bacteria could live within lettuce in every stage of the plant growth process, residing inside the plant tissue. L. monocytogenes can gai...
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Boston University professor found glassfrogs show surprising diversity of parental strategies

As far as housing goes, an egg is a pretty good place for a frog embryo. It offers physical protection and it keeps its inhabitant from drying out. But like many homes with great curb appeal, eggs aren’t always the ideal dwelling. For some frog eggs, being packed in a gelatinous mass, or “clutch,” can limit the supply of oxygen. Eggs can be swept away by floods or killed by fungal pathogens, and they make a nice lunch for predators like snakes and wasps. Faced with such peril, it might seem t...
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Stanford University has developed novel method to Label-Free Detection of Chemical Toxins in Tap Water by leveraging Fluorescent Carrier Ampholytes Assay.

New novel method for fluorescence-based indirect detection of analytes and demonstrate its use for label-free detection of chemical toxins in a hand-held device. Environmental monitoring efforts, and water quality assessment in particular, would benefit from widely available and inexpensive chemical assays and sensor technologies.1 Gas and liquid chromatography methods, and their coupling to mass spectrometry, currently are standard methods suggested by the United States Environmental Protect...
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University of Basel Sweden research has found that spiders eat 400-800 million tons of prey every year

It has long been suspected that spiders are one of the most important groups of predators of insects. Zoologists at the University of Basel and Lund University in Sweden have now shown just how true this is – spiders kill astronomical numbers of insects on a global scale. The scientific journal The Science of Nature has published the results. With more than 45,000 species and a population density of up to 1,000 individuals per square meter, spiders are one of the world’s most species-rich a...
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MIT study examines role of acoustic-gravity waves as ocean transport, early warning of tsunamis.

New study examines role of acoustic-gravity waves as ocean transport, early warning of tsunamis. Acoustic–gravity waves In fluid dynamics, gravity waves are waves generated in a fluid medium or at the interface between two media when the force of gravity or buoyancy tries to restore equilibrium. An example of such an interface is that between the atmosphere and the ocean, which gives rise to wind waves. A theory of guided propagation of sound in layered, movinMITg fluids is extended to ...
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Stanford and Oxford University researchers have created novel flexible solar cells from crystalline perovskite that could outperform existing silicon cells and allow it to be printed

A perovskite solar cell is a type of solar cell which includes a perovskite structured compound, most commonly a hybrid organic-inorganic lead or tin halide-based material, as the light-harvesting active layer. Perovskite materials such as methylammonium lead halides are cheap to produce and simple to manufacture. Perovskite solar cells have shown potential both in the rapid efficiency improvement (from 2.2% in 2006 to the latest record 20.1% in 2014) and in cheap material and manufacturing c...
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Medicinal plants

Healing with medicinal plants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant medicines. Awareness of medicinal plants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science ...
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Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers discover new fourth state of water molecule

Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states. In a paper published in Physical Review Letters, researchers at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory describe a new tunneling state of water molecules confined in hexagonal ultra-small channels – 5 angstrom across – of the mineral beryl. An angstrom is 1/10-billionth of a meter, a...
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KTH Royal Institute of Technology explains how Earth’s inner core remains solid despite extreme heat

Even though it is hotter than the surface of the Sun, the crystallized iron core of the Earth remains solid. A new study from KTH Royal Institute of Technology may finally settle a longstanding debate over how that’s possible, as well as why seismic waves travel at higher speeds between the planet’s poles than through the equator. Spinning within Earth’s molten core is a crystal ball – actually a mass formation of almost pure crystallized iron – nearly the size of the moon. Unde...
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University of Rochester researchers have developed microbial fuel cell (MFC) with electrode made from paper, and will enable certain bacteria to produce electricity from waste

A microbial fuel cell (MFC), or biological fuel cell, is a bio-electrochemical system that drives an electric current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature. MFCs can be grouped into two general categories: mediated and unmediated. The first MFCs, demonstrated in the early 20th century, used a mediator: a chemical that transfers electrons from the bacteria in the cell to the anode. Unmediated MFCs emerged in the 1970s; in this type of MFC the bacteria typically...
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Stanford engineers create a low-cost battery made with urea

Stanford University researchers created an aluminum-ion battery that uses an electrolyte material made of urea, the main component of urine (after water). A battery made with urea, commonly found in fertilizers and mammal urine, could provide a low-cost way of storing energy produced through solar power or other forms of renewable energy for consumption during off hours. A battery developed in Stanford Professor Hongjie Dai’s lab could provide low-cost storage for solar energy. (Image credit...
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Citizen science is the involvement of the public in scientific research – whether community-driven research or global investigations

Citizen science is the involvement of the public in scientific research – whether community-driven research or global investigations. The Citizen Science Association unites expertise from educators, scientists, data managers, and others to power citizen science. Join us, and help speed innovation by sharing insights across disciplines. https://youtu.be/UVuEsuk9Dgc   Whether through grassroots action or technology-mediated crowdsourcing, there has been a rapid increase in public par...
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University of Tokyo research findings will help thermal conduction and insulators. Study suggest trajectory of an electron passing through a magnetic field is bent.

A research group at the University of Tokyo and their collaborators have observed a phenomenon similar to the Hall effect—found only in electricity-conducting metal—in a spin liquid state, which, as an insulator, does not carry electricity. This groundbreaking discovery presents a new research method for studying spin liquid states, which are shrouded in mystery. A trajectory of an electron passing through a magnetic field is bent by what is known as the Lorentz force—the force exerted on the...
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Trinity College Dublin – CRANN researchers develop new method of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen

Researchers at CRANN, Ireland’s leading Science Foundation Ireland funded nanoscience institute based at Trinity College Dublin (TCD), have developed a new method of splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen. The discovery will have significant impact in the worldwide race to cheaply and efficiently produce hydrogen gas, hailed as the clean energy source of the future. Professor Mike Lyons, a Principal Investigator at CRANN and TCD’s School of Chemistry and his team have developed new inexpens...
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University of Würzburg has developed an alternative approach to fluorescent tagging of proteins

Advance in biomedical imaging: The Biocenter of the University of Würzburg in close collaboration with the University of Copenhagen has developed an alternative approach to fluorescent tagging of proteins. The new probes are practicable and compatible with high-resolution microscopic procedures. Fluorescence microscopy visualizes the molecular elements of cells. Proteins of nerve cells, for instance, can be labelled using probes which are subsequently excited with light to fluoresce. In the e...
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University of Wisconsin–Madison, study shows that sediment storage blocks the oxidation of carbon

For the development of animals, nothing — with the exception of DNA — may be more important than oxygen in the atmosphere. Oxygen enables the chemical reactions that animals use to get energy from stored carbohydrates — from food. So it may be no coincidence that animals appeared and evolved during the “Cambrian explosion,” which coincided with a spike in atmospheric oxygen roughly 500 million years ago. It was during the Cambrian explosion that most of the current animal designs appeared....
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