Increasing globally, particularly in children, obesity is a serious public health issue and risk factor for overweight and metabolic disease in later life. Both in experimental animal and human studies, advances in gene sequencing technologies have yielded intriguing possibilities for the role of the gut microbiome in later development of overweight status. Before translating study findings into practice, we must first reconcile inconsistencies between animal experimentation, and human adult and infant studies. Recent evidence for associations with gut microbiota and infant weight gain or child weight status, implicate Bacteroides and Lactobacillus species. Dietary manipulation with human milk and pre/probiotic formulations holds promise for preventing obesity.
Prebiotic Reduces Body Fat and Alters Intestinal Microbiota in Children With Overweight or Obesity
It might be possible to manipulate the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics or other agents to prevent or treat obesity. However, little is known about the ability of prebiotics to specifically modify gut microbiota in children with overweight/obesity or reduce body weight. We performed a randomized controlled trial to study the effects of prebiotics on body composition, markers of inflammation, bile acids in fecal samples, and composition of the intestinal microbiota in children with overweight or obesity.
We performed a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, trial of 2 separate cohorts (March 2014 and August 2014) at the University of Calgary in Canada. Participants included children, 7 – 12 years old, with overweight or obesity (>85th percentile of body mass index) but otherwise healthy. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given either oligofructose-enriched inulin (OI, 8 g/day; n=22) or maltodextrin placebo (isocaloric dose, controls; n=20) once daily for 16 weeks. Fat mass and lean mass were measured using dual-energy-x-ray absorptiometry. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks, and analyzed for lipids, cytokines, lipopolysaccharide, and insulin. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and 16 weeks; bile acids were profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography and the composition of the microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative PCR. The primary outcome was change in percent body fat from baseline to 16 weeks.
After 16 weeks, children who consumed OI had significant decreases in body weight z-score (decrease of 3.1%), percent body fat (decrease of 2.4%), and percent trunk fat (decrease of 3.8%) compared to children given placebo (increase of 0.5%, increase of 0.05%, and decrease of 0.3%, respectively). Children who consumed OI also had a significant reduction in level of interleukin 6 (IL6) from baseline (decrease of 15%) compared with the placebo group (increase in 25%). There was a significant decrease in serum triglycerides (decrease of 19%) in the OI group. Quantitative PCR showed a significant increase in Bifidobacterium spp. in the OI group compared with controls. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed significant increases in species of the genus Bifidobacterium and decreases in Bacteroides vulgatus within the group who consumed OI. In fecal samples, levels of primary bile acids increased in the placebo group but not in the OI group over the 16-week study period.
In a placebo-controlled, randomized trial, we found a prebiotic (OI) to selectively alter the intestinal microbiota and significantly reduce body weight z-score, percent body fat, percent trunk fat, and serum level of IL6 in children with overweight or obesity. Clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT02125955